Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Propaganda In Hollywood Movies Film Studies Essay 1. Thematic justification: The movie is based during the Second World War and precisely at the time the United States of America entered the war after a series of attacks by the Japanese on their naval installations in the Pacific region, primarily Pearl Harbor and the main theme of the movie, Wake Island, which came under attack soon after Pearl Harbor. The movie can be interpreted as a propaganda film that justifies the need for America to join the war and more importantly fight the Japanese. 2. Violence as a necessary part of patriotism: The movie shows American naval forces fearlessly engaging the Japanese forces with all their might. Though they were heavily outnumbered and their defeat at the hands of the Japanese was guaranteed, the soldiers continued to fight till their last breath to show their patriotism. 3. Ideological justification: The prominent ideological justification that was being promoted here was to avenge the Japanese attacks on the American Naval installations in Wake Island and Pearl Harbor. This was also evident in the title of the movie that had the phrase We will never forget wake Island attached to it. Also the movie is considers the defeat of the 4. War as a rite of passage: The movie does not contain any instances that promote War as a rite of passage. Though it does promote the idea like, war unifies people who are otherwise rivals and that war makes people more responsible and diligent. 5. Alienation and dehumanizing the enemy: The movie portrays the Japanese as ruthless, cold blooded killers slaughtering the outnumbered American forces on Wake Island. They also focused on the use of the Kamikaze by the Japanese which was a fighter plane used to carry out suicide missions during the Second World War. As explained above the movie promoted the need to avenge the attack on Wake Island and Pearl Harbor and the inhuman portrayal of the Japanese enemy added fuel to the fire. 6. Portrayal of hatred with the Japanese and likeness with the Chinese: The movie does say anything about the Chinese but certainly portrays the Japanese as the enemy. The last few words uttered by the weary and wounded protagonist Donlevy were send us more Japs! that was relayed to the headquarters in America. Such scenes are used to reinforce the idea that the Japanese are enemies in the minds of the common American citizens. 7. Oversimplified Dichotomy: Though America joined the war for various reasons other than the attack on Pearl Harbor the movie paints a different picture. According to the movie, the Japanese are the bad guys who attacked the good Americans and so the Americans who lost their lives at the hands of the ruthless Japanese have to be avenged. IRONMAN Iron Man is a superhero film inspired from the from the famous Marvel Comics character of the same name. The movie was released in 2008 and was directed by Jon Favreau starring Robert Downey Jr as the main protagonist Tony Stark better known as the Iron Man. Tony Stark is an engineering genius and the owner of Stark Enterprises, a company that manufactures high tech civil and most importantly military equipment. In the movie he is abducted by a group of terrorist while he was on business trip to Afghanistan. The leader of the terrorist group, Ten Rings, forces him to build a missile in order to carry out his evil agenda. Instead Tony Stark builds an exoskeleton suit with the resources given to him that makes him almost invincible and helps him defeat the terrorists and escape. After he gets back home he builds a more refined version of the high tech suit and decides to take on the responsibility of keeping his city safe from such terrorist and become a vigilante of sorts. Such movies can be interpreted as propaganda that is aimed at young people to make them aware of the whole idea of terrorism and the importance of fighting it. 1. Thematic Justification: Thematic Justification is defined as the theme of the movie or the background which shows social disorder and loss of control in the country. War is considered the only way to find a way out for the communal disharmony. In the movie Iron Man Tony Stark played by Robert Downey Jr is attacked by an Afghan terrorist group Ten Rings. The leader of the group, Raza offers Stark freedom as he was held captive by the group. But in turn they asked for the Jericho Missile, Knowing well that they wouldnt agree after the transaction is complete, Stark refuses. Once he gets back to the city he is informed that the Stark equipments were transported to Ten Rings. One of the equipments was the Jericho Missile. The artillery was transported to destroy Yinsen Town. Stark to avoid the mass destruction dons his armor and flies to Afghanistan for a epic war. 2. Violence as a necessary part of patriotism: Violence is always very evident in all Hollywood movies. No matter how much the degree of it is present. Iron Man is no less. There is considerable amount of violence. Even though the concept is fictitious Iron Man does have a battle with the terrorist group. The violence is quite evident but does not end up in any bloodshed. 3. Ideological Justification: It is difficult to point out if there was any ideological justification in the movie. Though if analyzed it could show the tense and strained relationship between The United States of America and Afghanistan. Tony Stark gets back at the terrorist group, Ten Rings and at the end of he saves Yinsen village from mass destruction. To some extent one could say that Iron Man fights for freedom and all his actions echoes this statement. 4. War as a rite of passage: This parameter is true in the case of Iron Man. Tony Stark is a Genius, billionaire, playboy and a philanthropist (as mentioned in the movie Avengers ) This is enough to prove that Stark is a spoiled and care free individual. But once he encounters his exoskeleton suit and the power it holds he becomes more disciplined. 5. Alienation and dehumanizing the enemy: Ten Rings is a monstrous and evil group. They shipped in Starks equipments to destroy the village of Yinsen. If they succeeded there would be mass destruction and innumerable bloodshed. But Iron Man comes into the picture and does what is needed to done. So it is justified that the terrorist group must be killed. 6. Portrayal of hatred with the Japanese and likeness with the Chinese: There is no portrayal of any likeness towards China or hatred towards Japanese in the movie. This movie mainly comprises of the terrorist group, Ten Rings from Afghanistan. Militants and terror groups like Al-Qaeda, from the Middle Eastern region are currently considered the main enemies of the United States especially after the September 2001 terrorist attacks. 7. Oversimplified Dichotomy: Here to justify this parameter Iron Man does have visuals where Iron Man (representing America) is treated as the hero of the movie and Ten Rings (enemy; Afghanistan). Just as any comic based movie ends, Iron Man wins the battle. The viewers tend to believe that the USA is always on the right and ethical track. This brings in a feeling of bias in the minds of the public THE KINGDOM The Kingdom was directed by Peter Berg in 2007, starring Jamie Foxx, Chris Cooper, Jennifer Garner. It talks about how a terrorist group attacked and unleashed a massacre inside a Western housing compound in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The incident became a huge international issue during a time when the relationship between the two countries was undergoing a lot of strain. Meanwhile, diplomats in Washington were slow to act and debated territorial issues. But FBI agent Ronald Fleury decided to take things in his own hands and quickly assembled a team and worked his way around the bureaucracy to somehow carryout an investigation in Saudi Arabia and catch the people responsible. But things didnt go so smoothly in Saudi Arabia, agent Fleury and his team were tearted with suspicion as most of the Saudi government officials and royals were sceptical about the whole idea. Fortunately, the team find Colonel Al-Ghazi, a dedicated and sincere official. They formed a good bond and he helps the team get around the bureaucracy in Saudi Arabia and help them in their investigation. In the end, as usual, they capture and kill the terrorists after a series of gun fights and dramatic action sequences. The plot of the movie is fictional, but it is obviously influenced by the bombings at a similar American housing compound on May 12, 2003 and the Khobar housing complex on June 26, 1996, in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The movie does not provide any critical information or thought provoking insights. It is produced with an aim to simplify the Americas political agendas in other countries and moreover, to justify its interventions in the Middle East. Such propaganda is aimed at young people all over the world to influence them to join the so called War on Terrorism. 1. Thematic justification: The movie is based on the American war on terrorism and inspired by bombings at the Riyadh compound on May 12, 2003 and the Khobar housing complex on June 26, 1996, in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In the movie a a terrorist bomb detonates inside a Western housing compound in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, an international incident is ignited and FBI Special Agent Ronald Fleury quickly assembles an elite team and decides to take things in his own hands. They go into Saudi Arabia to investigate and more importantly kill the people responsible for the bombings. 2. Violence as a necessary part of patriotism: The main casualties of the terrorist attack are Americans and this prompts agent Fleury to go on a mission to Saudi Arabia with just one aim, identifying and killing the people responsible for the attacks. 3. Ideological Justification: The movie does not seem to any ideological justification other than avenging the death of the American workers in Saudi Arabia at the hands of terrorist thus instilling a false sense of justice. They just go about killing the terrorists until they reach the mastermind of the terrorist activities there and kill him as well without even asking any questions. 4. War as a rite of passage: This movie does not promote war as a rite of passage but rater it conveys the message that war breeds hate and hate perpetuates more hate leading to a vicious cycle of suffering. 5. Alienation and dehumanizing the enemy: In this movie the enemies are terrorists, ruthlessly killing innocent civilians and instilling fear among the people. Therefore they are naturally treated inhumanely and killed without question. 6. Portrayal of hatred with the Japanese and likeness with the Chinese: There is no portrayal of likeness with the Chinese or hatred towards the Japanese in the movie. As mentioned above the enemies are the terrorists from groups like Al-Qaeda, from the Middle Eastern region who are currently considered the main enemies of the United States especially after the September 2001 terrorist attacks. 7. Oversimplified Dichotomy: In this movie it is very obvious that the bad guys are the terrorists and the good guys are the FBI agents. The terrorists are responsible for killing innocent civilians and thus the FBI agents are justified in killing these terrorists without any question.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Sudden Death Canasta All eyes were focused on me. This was it. The tension had been building up to this point, and I knew there was no way out. I had gotten myself into this predicament, and I was the only one that could get myself out of it. There was nobody to turn to, for they were all waiting for my final move. I had never felt so alone, so isolated. I thumbed through my cards for the fourth consecutive time, and I could still not decide which one to throw. I glanced up from my cards and caught a glimpse of each player. I immediately felt the intensity of my brother's eyes glaring at me from across the table. He did not provide me with the support and reassurance I was looking for from my partner. I shifted my eyes to the right. My mother, having just discarded a five of clubs and seeing that it was of no use to me, was sipping coffee with a carefree grin of relief. Then I peered directly at the most intimidating canasta player I have ever encountered. Great Grandma Rose was calmly humming a tuneless tune which added to her enigma. As this crafty eighty-eight year old lady squinted at her cards through her bifocals, I knew that time was running out; I had to make my decision. The most obvious choice was to discard the king of spades for which I had no use, but I was afraid that she was waiting for this card. My alternative was to break up my meld and throw the six of clubs, a card which I felt somewhat safe in throwing. In the midst of my despair, great grandma delivered the final blow. She stopped humming and uttered these dreaded words: "It only hurts for a minute." She could not have dug a knife any deeper. My brother's eyes were flaring with tension, I had complete control over his fate, and I knew our team unity was riding on the outcome of my decision. I therefore decided to play defensively and throw the six of clubs. No sooner had my discard settled on top of the pile than my great grandmother's hand darted out to snatch up the stack of cards and my brother simultaneously belted out a scream. "The six of clubs?
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Abstract Ã This study examined the similarities and differences of Judaism and Christianity in terms of three critical issues to wit: Sin, Messiah, and Covenant.Ã A visit to the synagogue was undertaken in order to further examine the culture and traditions of the Jewish community. Likewise, the author for the purpose of obtaining first-hand information also conducted an interview with a member of the Jewish community. The information derived from the said interview facilitated further understanding of the nature of the design of synagogues as well as of the various activities that are being carried out in the worship place. On Judaism and Christianity:Ã A Comparison and Contrast Introduction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Religion, as defined in most references, refers to the set of beliefs concerning the nature and purpose of the universe. (Unabridged Dictionary, 1998, p. 1628). It serves as a medium for us to better understand why people or societies differ in terms of reactions to various issues, ideologies, actions, etc. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This paper aims to provide an overview of Judaism. Likewise, it also aims to present how the said religion differs from Christianity by means of examining three critical issues to wit: sin, the messiah, and the covenant. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã According to Armstrong (1993), Judaism had its beginnings in Palestine. It is said to be one of the oldest and 12th among the largest religions in the world. Likewise, it is noted that Judaism is dominant in countries like the USA, Europe, and Israel. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Likewise, Armstrong (1993) stated that Abraham introduced Judaism in Palestine and its followers were globally known as Jews. The word Jew, as cited in most references, actually means people who live in Judah. Name, Location and Review of the site Mr. Kristoff Frank was interviewed for this paper. He provided the author relevant information pertaining to JudaismÃ¢â¬â¢s nature as an institutional belief. Likewise, he also shared the JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ concept of sin, the messiah, and the covenant. The JewÃ¢â¬â¢s Place of Worship The JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ place of worship is known as the synagogue. The synagogue, according to Mr. Frank, differs from the place of worship of other religions since it serves not only as a venue for praying but also a place for studying and for social and charitable works. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As stated by Mr. Frank, a synagogue has its board of directors. The said board of directors is usually comprised of lay people. This group is in-charge of ensuring the maintenance of the synagogues as well as the management of the activities being conducted in the place. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The board of directors usually hires a rabbi, which is actually equivalent to a priest in other religions. A rabbi is a valuable member of the Jewish community because it provides leadership, guidance, and education to the Jewish people. However, it was noted that, unlike other religions, a rabbi might be absent from a synagogue on a temporary basis and that religious activities may be carried out in the absence of a rabbi. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Inside the synagogue, it can be noted that during sessions, the passing of collection baskets are absent. This is so because Jews are not allowed to carry money during holidays and Sabbath. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As per Mr. Frank, synagogues are financed by means of the payment of the membersÃ¢â¬â¢ annual dues, voluntary donations, and via the payment for reserved seats for services during Rosh Hashanah (New Year) and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). Design of Synagogues Sanctuary is the term being used to refer to a portion inside the synagogue that is assigned for the conduct of prayer services. As per Mr. Frank, the sanctuary is built in such a way that it faces towards the direction of Jerusalem. This is so because certain prayers of Judaism must be recited facing the said direction. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Sanctuary is also a seat to a cabinet found in the synagogueÃ¢â¬â¢s wall.Ã The said cabinet is known as the Ark. The Ark actually holds the Torah scrolls (scriptures that are used during services written in parchment paper). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Other notable structures found inside the synagogue are the Eternal Lamp (Ner Tamid), a candlelabrum (Menorah), and a pedestal (bimah). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Based on observations made, it can be noted that the architectural design of synagogues are simpler as compared with the churches we see. This perhaps may be due to the wide range of activities that may be conducted in the place. Interview Summary As cited in earlier, one of the main objectives of this paper is to provide an overview of Judaism. According to Mr. Frank, Judaism is a monotheistic type of religion and its followers are guided by the principle that history is an ongoing dialogue between God and humanity. Hence, as a Jew, it is his duty to be able to live within the teachings of the Torah. This, according to Mr. Frank, is the way by which the Jews will be able to fulfill GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plan for them as well as realize their pre-determined contribution to their country and the whole world in general. The JewÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of sin, as cited by Mr. Frank and other references on Judaism, includes actions that tend to deviate from the teachings stipulated in the Torah. Moreover, according to Mr. Frank, sin for the Jews consists of three elements (i.e. het, avon, and pesha). Mr. Frank explained that the Het or the missing mark has something to do with respect to the highest ideal. While Avon and Pesha has something to do with the deviation from what is right and lawful (as stated in the Torah) and the act of rebellion against the law and the authorities, respectively. Taking these definitions into account, it can be said that the concept of sin for the Jews would actually refer to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to carry out his obligations in accordance with the Torah, rituals, and the Jewish social norms. Furthermore, as cited in other references, the concept of original sin in Judaism does not exist. Adam and EveÃ¢â¬â¢s situation are considered not as an original sin but more of a consequence of the actions that both individuals have undertaken. As per Cohen-Sherbok (1999), the concept of Messiah also exists in Judaism. However, it cannot be left unnoticed that in the institutional belief understudy, the Messiah can be any person with a Divine mission (i.e. priests, kings, and prophets) and is still yet to come. Hence, Jesus Christ is not considered as a Messiah but a false prophet. In Judaism, there also exist the concept of a covenant. This is actually known as berith in their native parlance. According to Mr. Frank, the covenant is the contractual agreement between God and the Jewish people. It represents the special relationship of God with the Jews that was built in Mt. Sinai. Judaism vis-Ã -vis Christianity Christianity possesses similar attributes with that of Judaism. However, it can be noted that both institutional beliefs differ in some aspects. This may be understood by means of reviewing Christianity in terms of its concept of sin, the messiah, and covenant. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In Christianity, sin is also referred to as an action that deviates from the teachings stipulated in the Holy Scripture. Repentance, atonement, and the need to live in accordance with the commandments given by God are pre-requisites to living a Christian life. However, despite the similarities, it can be noted that Judaism and Christianity differs in three aspects to wit: concepts of original sin and eternal life. As mentioned earlier, Judaism does not recognize the concept of original sin. As mentioned earlier, Jews took Adam and EveÃ¢â¬â¢s situation as a consequence of the choices or actions undertaken by both individuals. With this, the thinking that individuals are born with original sin is not accepted in Judaism as well as the concept of baptism. The concept of eternal life also does not exist in Judaism. This is so because Judaism does not recognize Jesus Christ as its savior. In fact, Jesus Christ is regarded as a false prophet. Likewise, the Jews believe that their destiny depends on their good deeds. The concept of messiah for both institutional beliefs is similar except for the fact that in Judaism, Jesus Christ is not considered as a messiah but a false prophet. As stated earlier, the covenant is regarded as a contractual agreement between God and the Jewish people unlike in Christianity that regards Jesus Christ not only as the messiah but also the new covenant. Christianity recognizes that God gave Jesus Christ to save mankind from sin and that by means of accepting him as the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s savior and creator reconciles an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with God the Father. Conclusion Taking into consideration all the information gathered pertaining to Judaism and Christianity, it can be said that both institutional beliefs are similar and that Christianity further enhances the teachings and practices of Judaism. Ã References Armstrong, Karen. (1993). A History of God: The 4, 000- Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., USA. Cohn-Sherbok, Dan. (1999). Judaism. London : Routledge, Corrigan, John, Denny, F.M., Eire, C. N., & Jaffe, M.S. et. al. (1998). Readings in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Prentice Hall, Inc. New Jersey, USA. Frank, Kristoff S. (2006, May 09).Ã On Judaism. United States: New Jersey. Introductory Notes in Judaism. (1997). Peck, A.A, and Neusner, J. (2004). The Routledge Dictionary of Judaism. New York: Routledge. Random House. (1998). WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd edition. New York: Random House Inc.
Friday, January 3, 2020
The words track and tract areÃ near homophones: They sound similar but have different meanings. The only difference in pronunciation is that tract includes the t sound at the very end. Track can be either a noun or a verb, whereas tract is a noun with several different meanings. Both are common in spoken and written English, so its important to understand how to correctly use each. How to Use Track The word track can be used as a noun or a verb, and the meaning changes radically, depending on its usage. As a noun, track means a literal or figurative path, route, or course. A common use of the word track relates to a running track; a related use of the word is in the expression track and field, meaning athletic endeavors related to running, jumping, shot put, and discus throwing. The noun track also refers to a mark left on the floor or ground by a person, animal, or vehicle.Ã As a verb, track means to travel, pursue, or follow: One can track an animal by following its tracks. One can also track information or keep track of events, finances, or the movements of people, animals, or vehicles. How to Use Tract The noun tract has a number of distinct meanings. A tract can be an expanse of land or water, a housing development, or a pamphlet containing a declaration, appeal, or religious message. The word tract also refers to certain systems of organs and tissues in the body: the digestive tract, the intestinal tract, the respiratory tract, and the urinary tract. Examples The following examples represent the use of the word track in all of its meanings. In the first sentence, the word is used as a noun and means a path or route. In the second, the word is used as a noun meaning to pursue or follow, and in the third, track is used as a noun meaning the marks left by an animal. The volunteers cleared the track through the woods, making it safe for hikers.The police tracked the car and found that it had been stolen.Roger found a coyote track in the backyard and kept his dog safely inside. The examples below use the word tract in its various meanings. In the first sentence, tract is used to mean a system of organs and tissues. In the second sentence, a tract is a political declaration. In the third sentence, it refers to a large expanse of land. The diver reached between the jaws of the shark to dislodge a grappling hook that was stuck in the animals digestive tract.In 1774, Thomas JeffersonÃ wrote his first tractÃ on politics, a set of instructions for the Virginia delegates to the First Continental Congress.The large tracts of land available for development were once farmers fields. How to Remember the Difference The word track is much more commonly used than tract, and it is generally used to either describe a running track or the process of tracking a person or animals. The expression keep track of is also very common and is usually used when discussing either information management, as in Im trying to keep track of all these invoices, or management of children or animals, as in Its hard to keep track of my kids many activities. The word tract is more often used in legal documents regarding purchase or sale of land, in religious contexts (a religious tract), or in medical settings (a blocked digestive tract). It is rarely used in casual conversation. Sources Track vs Tract.Ã Grammarist.Tract.Ã Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster.